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譯訊第33期

文章來源:翻譯室  發布時間:2015-10-10

時政要聞
習近平主席對美國進行國事訪問
聚焦北京2022冬奧會
科技前沿
交流園地
 
2015年9月30日
Wednesday, September 30th, 2015

河南省人民政府外事僑務辦公室
翻譯室

======================================================================
時政要聞  News Review

 
國際新聞:International
  1. 8月4日,為加強應對全球變暖問題,美國總統奧巴馬正式宣布了一項具有爭議的計劃,該計劃旨在減少美國發電廠碳排放量。奧巴馬表示,氣候變化是當前世界面臨的最大威脅,該計劃要求,到2030年,全美發電廠的碳排放量應在2005年基礎上削減32%,這將會減少美國家庭的能源支出,同時提高全美人民的健康水平。
    US President Barack Obama stepped up efforts to fight global warming at the formal unveiling of his administration's controversial plan to cut carbon emissions from US power plants on August 4th. Declaring climate change the greatest threat facing the world, Obama said the regulation requiring the power sector to cut its emissions by 32% from 2005 levels by 2030 would reduce Americans' energy bills and improve the health of vulnerable populations nationwide.
    2. 9月21日,俄羅斯總統普京在會見來訪的以色列總理內塔尼亞胡時表示,莫斯科在中東問題上將始終保持負責任的態度。內塔尼亞胡此次到訪主要就俄不斷加大介入敘力度以及中東地區的其他安全問題與普京交換看法。雙方都同意,保持中東地區穩定符合雙方利益,內塔尼亞胡對雙方的相互尊重和開放性對話表示贊賞。
    Moscow's position on the Middle East would always remain responsible, Russian President Vladimir Putin on September 21st, told visiting Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu. The prime minister came to Russia to mainly discuss with Putin Russia's growing involvement in Syria as well as other security issues in the Middle East region. Both sides agreed that they share common interests of ensuring stability in the Middle East, while Netanyahu praised the mutual respect and openness of the dialogue with Moscow.
    3. 9月22日,歐盟成員國政府大多數表決通過了關于重新安置12萬難民的議案,此舉將有助于改善歐盟部分國家面臨的日益嚴峻的難民問題。歐盟表示,所有參與此次重新安置項目的國家都會一次性獲得每名難民6000歐元的安置補助。然而,這項議案受到包括丹麥和英國在內的部分成員國的強烈反對,它們不會參與安置行動。
    The governments of European Union (EU) member countries approved the proposal to relocate 120,000 migrants by a majority vote on September 22nd. This will help to improve the situation of refugees facing some of the EU members. EU said the member states participating in the mechanism will receive a lump sum of 6, 000 Euros for each relocated person. However, the proposal was outright resisted by some member states, such as Denmark and the United Kingdom; they will not participate in this decision.
國內新聞:China
    4. 第十五屆國際田聯世界田徑錦標賽8月22日在北京國家體育場隆重開幕,來自世界207個國家的約2000名運動員將同場競技。中國國家主席習近平在開幕式上宣布該項賽事開幕,出席開幕式的還有國際奧委會主席托托馬斯·巴赫和國際田聯主席拉米·迪亞克。此次田徑世錦賽上,中國代表團收獲1金7銀1銅,創造了參加世錦賽以來的最佳戰績。
    The 15th World Athletics Championships opened at the National Stadium in Beijing on August 22nd, with about 2,000 athletes from 207 countries around the world taking part in. Chinese President Xi Jinping declared it open at the ceremony. Among those present at the ceremony were International Olympic Committee (IOC) President Thomas Bach and International Association of Athletics Federation (IAAF) President Lamine Diack. Chinese Delegation won 1 gold medal, 7 silver medals and 1 bronze medal in this event, and the best since the first attendance of World Athletics Championships.
    5. 9月3日,中國人民抗日戰爭暨世界反法西斯戰爭勝利70周年活動正式在北京拉開序幕,此次活動由國務院總理李克強主持,國家主席習近平出席并發表講話,并與來華國家元首、政府首腦及聯合國等國際組織代表一起觀看了閱兵儀式。此次紀念活動旨在銘記歷史,緬懷在戰爭中犧牲的生命,珍惜和平和展望未來。
    On September 3rd, the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People's War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War kicked off in Beijing. The ceremony was presided by Premier Li Keqiang. President Xi Jinping attended the ceremony and delivered a speech, and observed the military parade with heads of state and government and representatives of the United Nations and other international organizations. The aim of the commemoration is to remember history and honor all those who have laid down their lives during the war, to cherish peace and also to look towards the future.
    6. 9月22日,國務院總理李克強主持會議,聽取國務院天津港“8•12”瑞海公司危險品倉庫特別重大火災爆炸事故調查組工作進展情況匯報。此次爆炸共造成165人死亡,其中包括99名消防人員和11名民警,給港口區域帶來了嚴重損失。李克強總理明確要求徹查原因、嚴肅追責。
    Premier Li Keqiang headed a meeting on September 22nd, for a briefing of the report by the State Council investigation team on the explosion of Tianjin hazardous chemicals warehouse owned by Ruihai International Logistics. Huge explosions occurred on August 12th, killing 165 people, including 99 firefighters and 11 police officers, and devastating the port area. Premier Li stated clearly that the investigation should be thoroughly done and serious accountability would be required.
    7. 9月2日,來華出席中國人民抗日戰爭暨世界反法西斯戰爭勝利70周年紀念活動的塔吉克斯坦總統埃莫馬利•拉赫蒙在北京釣魚臺國賓館會見省長謝伏瞻,并共同見證河南省人民政府與塔吉克斯坦哈特隆州政府、中國國家開發銀行《關于融資推動農業產業項目合作諒解備忘錄》的簽署。
On September 2nd, visiting President Emomali Rakhmon of the Republic of Tajikistan for the 70th anniversary of the victory of the Chinese People's War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression and the World Anti-Fascist War met with Governor Xie Fuzhan of Henan province at Diaoyutai State Guesthouse, and they witnessed the signing of The MOU on Promoting the Agricultural Cooperation through financing among Henan province, Khatlon State of Tajikistan and China Development Bank.
    8. 9月17日,鄭州國際陸港開發建設有限公司發布消息,自2013年7月18日首班運行以來,鄭歐班列已累計開行200班,總累計貨值9.67億美元,貨重8.76萬噸,綜合指標繼續保持全國21列中歐班列首位。
    On September 17th, Zhengzhou International Hub Development and Construction Co.,Ltd released that since the first Zhengzhou-Europe Block Train was opened on July 18th, 2013, 200 block trains have been operated, with total cargo value of 967 million US dollars and total cargo weight of 87,600 tons. Composite indicator continues to be the first amongst all 21 China-Europe block trains.(供稿人:高陽、宋美揚子)

 
習近平主席對美國進行國事訪問 
President Xi’s State Visit to US

 
    應美國總統奧巴馬邀請,國家主席習近平于9月22日至25日對美國進行國事訪問,并于26日至28日赴紐約聯合國總部出席聯合國成立70周年系列峰會。這是習主席首次對美國進行國事訪問和首次到訪聯合國總部,受到中美兩國以及整個國際社會的高度關注。
    Invited by US President Barack Obama, Chinese President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to US from September 22 to 25, and visited UN headquarter in New York from September 26 to 28 to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the founding of the United Nations. This is President Xi’s first state visit to the United States and his first visit to the UN headquarters. The visit attracts great attention from people in China, the United States and the wider international community. 
    1. 隨行訪問人員和企業
     Accompanying officials and entrepreneurs:
    主席夫人彭麗媛、中央政治局委員、中央政策研究室主任王滬寧,中央政治局委員、中央書記處書記、中辦主任栗戰書,國務委員楊潔篪、外交部部長王毅等陪同訪問。此外阿里巴巴(Alibaba)、萬向集團(Wanxiang Group)、騰訊(Tencent)、聯想集團(Lenovo)、新奧能源(ENN Energy)、中遠集團(COSCO Group)、中國建筑(CSCEC)、雙匯集團(Shuanghui Group)、中國銀行(BOC)、工商銀行(ICBC)、伊利集團(Yili Group)、百度(Baidu)、海爾集團(Haier Group)等15家中國企業的高管隨行訪美。15家企業均為各行業領軍企業,涉及互聯網、金融、汽車、能源、食品、建筑、化工、制造業等多個領域。
    2. 訪問主要議程: 
    Major activities:

    922:在西雅圖參加美中關系全國委員會(National Committee on United States-China Relations)和美中貿易全國委員會(U.S.-China Business Council)舉辦的晚宴,并發表重要的政策演講;
    923:參加由芝加哥大學保爾森基金會(Paulson Institute)主席、前財政部長小亨利·M·保爾森(Henry M.Paulson Jr.)舉辦的圓桌討論,參觀波音(Boeing)位于華盛頓州埃弗里特的工廠,訪問塔科馬市的林肯高中(Lincoln High School),出席由微軟(Microsoft)和中國互聯網協會舉辦的中美互聯網行業論壇(U.S.-China Internet Industry Forum)?!?br />     924:在白宮會晤奧巴馬總統、國務卿約翰·克里(John Kerry)和奧巴馬的國家安全顧問蘇珊·E·賴斯(Susan E. Rice)。
    925:在白宮接受21響禮炮的歡迎,并同奧巴馬總統舉行聯合記者招待會,前往國會山會見國會領袖,并出席晚上在白宮舉行的國宴。
    926:前往紐約,參加在聯合國總部(UN headquarter)舉行的活動。
    927:在中國和聯合國將共同舉辦的“全球婦女峰會:從承諾到行動”中致開幕詞,并擔任第一場會議的主席。
    928:在聯合國成立70周年峰會上發表講話。
 
    3. 訪問的主要目的:
      Major Objectives
    首先,這是一次增信釋疑之旅。中美攜手合作,將惠及兩國,造福世界;反之,中美摩擦交惡,則將傷及雙方,影響全球。
    First, President Xi’s visit helps enhance trust and reduce misgivings between China and the United States. China and the US working together benefits both countries and the world at large. Frictions in relations undermine both countries’ interests and affect the wider world.
    其次,這是一次聚焦合作之旅。中美之間的全方位和戰略性合作,正在為兩國關系乃至全球的和平發展提供正能量和新動力。
    Secondly, President Xi’s visit focuses on cooperation between China and the United States. The all-dimensional and strategic cooperation between China and the US has provided new drivers to boost not just bilateral relations, but also the cause of global peace and development.
    第三,這是一次面向人民之旅。中美友好的動力在人民,根基在人民。面向美國人民,親和普通民眾,是習主席此次訪美的一大特色,也是一大亮點。
    Thirdly, President Xi’s visit is a people-first visit. China-US friendly relations are powered by the people, and rooted in the people. A major highlight of President Xi’s visit to the US is his extensive outreach to the American people.
    第四,這是一次開創未來之旅。習主席這次訪問不僅要總結過去,增進互信,更重要的是與美方一道,著眼長遠,開辟未來。
    Fourthly, President Xi’s visit is future-oriented. During the visit, the two sides not only take stock of the past and enhance mutual trust, but more importantly, they work together to articulate a vision for the future.
 
    習近平向聯合國贈送“和平尊”
    Presenting Zun of Peace to the United Nations
    為紀念聯合國成立70周年,中國政府決定向聯合國贈送一座“和平尊”。
   This Zun of Peace is presented by the Chinese government as a gift to the United Nations to commemorate its 70th anniversary.
   “和平尊”以中國古代青銅器中的“尊”為原型。“尊”取“敬重”之義,在中國傳統文化中是十分隆重的禮器。我們今天以“尊”為禮,表達中國對聯合國的重視和支持,也是13億多中國人民對聯合國的美好祝福。
    Zun of Peace is modeled after Zun, a bronze ritual object used in ancient China. Zun means reverence in Chinese, and this bronze ritual object is highly important in traditional Chinese culture. This gift represents China's high regard and support for the United Nations and the best wishes of the over 1.3 billion Chinese people to the organization.
    “和平尊”以“中國紅”為主色調,熱情莊重。頂部的龍飾象征守望和平。兩側的象首、鳳鳥寓意天下太平,人民安康。尊體飾以中國傳統吉祥紋飾,輔以絲綢之路等元素,傳承和平發展、交流合作的理念。尊身展翅高飛的七只和平鴿,代表聯合國為世界和平而奮斗的70年。
    This work is mainly in the color of “Chinese red”, giving a warm and solemn touch to it. The dragons at the top represent guardians of peace, and the elephants and phoenixes on both sides convey wishes for prosperity across the world. The whole work is adorned with traditional auspicious patterns and elements of the Silk Road, representing China's vision of peace, development, exchanges and cooperation. The seven flying doves symbolize 70 years of the United Nations' dedication to world peace.   (節選自外交部網站;供稿人:丁銳)

 
聚焦北京2022冬奧會

 
    冬季奧林匹克運動會是一項國際性的重大體育賽事,每四年舉辦一次. 相比夏季奧運會而言,冬奧會的項目主要是在冰雪上進行。第一屆冬奧會于1924年在法國夏蒙尼舉辦。今年7月31日,北京及其協辦城市河北省張家口市在國際奧委會投票中以44比40險勝哈薩克斯坦阿拉木圖,贏得了2022年冬季奧運會的舉辦權。
    The Winter Olympic Games is a major international sporting event that occurs once every four years. Unlike the Summer Olympics, the Winter Olympics feature sports practiced on snow and ice. The first Winter Olympics was held in Chamonix, France in 1924. Beijing, with co-host Zhangjiakou in neighboring Hebei province, edged out Almaty, Kazakhstan, by 44-40 in the IOC vote on July 31st,won  the hosting right of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games
 
    中國申奧代表團精彩陳述(節選)
 
    中國國務院副總理劉延東:
    中國政府全力支持北京申辦2022冬奧會和冬殘奧會,我們將提供財政、法律、安保、醫療保健和組織運行等各方面的保障。2022的冬奧會如果在北京舉辦,將帶動三億中國人,特別是北京青少年參與冰雪運動。冬奧會會激發中國人的激情,增強他們的體質。作為一個負責任的國家,中國將會實現我們的一切承諾。
    Chinese government fully supports Beijing's bid for 2022 Winter Olympic Games and will provide all kinds of safeguards for the Games, including finance, law, security, health care and organizational operations. The Games will inspire 300 million Chinese, especially young people in Beijing, to join the Winter Sports’ fun if the city wins the 2022 bid. The Games can ignite their passion, and make them healthier. As a responsible country, China will meet all preparatory pledges.
 
    中國奧委會主席、國家體育總局局長劉鵬:
    12個場館中有11個是2008奧運遺產,大幅度降低了辦賽成本。延慶和張家口所有的新建場館都符合當地的長遠發展規劃。我們的賽事組織能力,包括舉辦亞洲冬季運動會,將為北京2022冬奧會和冬殘奧會的圓滿成功提供最可靠的保證。
    Eleven of the 12 venues in Beijing are already 2008 Olympic Games legacy venues, substantially reducing costs. And all new venues planned in Yanqing and Zhangjiakou aligns with the long-term regional development plans. Our proven event-organizing capability, including holding the Asian Winter Games, will provide a reliable platform for successful 2022 winter games.
 
    國際奧委會副主席、中國奧委會副主席于再清:
中國有一句古諺語,千里之行始于足下,今天在奧林匹克歷程中將會邁出歷史性的一步。邁出這一步,你們選擇北京,舉辦一屆以運動員為中心的奧運會,為冰雪運動長遠發展奠定基礎。
     We have a saying in China, a journey of thousand miles starts with a single step. Today a historical step in the journey of Olympic movement will be taken. You have the choice to choose the city who will not only deliver an athlete-centered Olympic Games, but who will also build a foundation for ice sports development.
 
    北京冬奧申委主席、北京市市長王安順:
    北京是全世界最受歡迎的旅游目的地之一,2014年境外游客達到了500萬人次,全市擁有超過11萬間星級酒店客房。為充分滿足商業和休閑旅游的需要,我們已經和132家酒店簽訂了協議,房間的數量將比國際奧委會要求的高出30%?,F有的住宿設施可讓冬奧會的客戶有更好的選擇。
     As one of the world's top tourist destinations, Beijing has received almost five million international tourists in 2014 and the city has more than 110,000 star-rated hotel rooms. To cater all the Games clients and spectators, Beijing has signed binding agreements with 132 hotels, exceeding the IOC room requirements by 30 percent. The existing accommodation would be able to offer them better choices.
  
    北京冬奧會比賽項目一覽:
    Short Track Speed Skating 短道速滑
    Speed Skating 速度滑冰
    Figure Skating 花樣滑冰
    Ice Hockey 冰球
    Curling 冰壺
    Bobsleigh 雪車
    Skeleton俯式冰橇
    Freestyle Skiing自由式滑雪
    Snowboarding單板滑雪
    Biathlon冬季兩項
    Nordic Combined北歐兩項
    Luge雪橇
    Alpine Skiing高山滑雪
    Cross-Country Skiing越野滑雪
    Ski Jumping 跳臺滑雪
(摘自北京申奧委官網、中國日報網;供稿人:高陽)


 
科技前沿

   首款"偷不走的自行車"問世
    A trio of Chilean engineers says they have found a way to thwart determined thieves with what they claim is the world's first 'unstealable bike.' The design, called the Yerka, looks like an average bike, but the bottom tube of the frame can be split into two parts and wrapped around a pole. According its creators, the frame can be dismantled and reconnected to make a lock in just 10 seconds. Once the bike's seat tube forms a lock, the only way to steal the bike would be to cut through it, destroying it in the process. The Yerka is the creation of Cristóbal Cabello, 22, Andrés Roi Eggers, 23 and Juan José Monsalve, 24. The design was first announced in November, but last week, the team said they had put in their first order to produce 300 Yerkas. While an investment of $100,000 from a state enterprise fund helped the project along, they raised most of their funds on crowdfunding site Indiegogo. The start-up sold the first 100 bikes for $400 then increased the price to $500. In future it will rise to $600, according to a CNN report. While they call it the world's first unstealable bike, critics have previously said the lock could be picked or the bike easily destroyed. Thieves might also be happy simply to get the handlebars or front wheel. But the team says that if they weren't working on something as revolutionary as this, they would have their critics. They also add that the wheels have anti-theft nuts that can only be opened with a special key. The designers are now working on an app that will let users open up their bike using the smart phone.
    三名智利工程師宣稱發明了世界上首款“偷不走的自行車”,他們表示,這下那些信誓旦旦的偷車賊肯定沒轍了。這款自行車名為“尤科”,看上去跟普通自行車沒什么兩樣,但車身底桿可以分成兩部分,環繞在一根柱子上。發明者稱,拆開車身主架、重新組裝成一把鎖,這一過程僅需10秒。一旦自行車車座桿形成一把鎖,偷車的唯一辦法就是把車切開,這樣做的話自行車也就毀了。“尤科”自行車是由22歲的克里斯托波爾•卡貝略、23歲的安德烈斯•羅伊和24歲的胡安•喬斯•蒙薩爾維共同發明的。這個設計在去年11月份首次公布。上周,這個團隊表示,他們接到了第一份訂單,首批300輛“尤科”自行車已投入生產。一家國有企業已投資10萬美元來贊助這個項目,但是他們大部分的資金是在眾籌網站Indiegogo上籌集到的。這個初創公司以400美元單價銷售了首批100輛自行車,之后提價至500美元。據CNN報道,未來該品牌自行車價格將升至600美元。他們宣稱“尤科”為世界上首輛“偷不走的自行車”,然而曾有人批評稱,車鎖是可以被撬開的,而且自行車也很容易毀壞。只拿到車把或前輪,小偷們也照樣很開心。不過,這個團隊表示,如果研制的產品不夠革新,他們也會遭受質疑的,他們還說車輪有防盜螺母,只有專用鑰匙才能打開它。設計者們目前正在開發應用程序,如此一來,用戶可以用智能手機給自行車開鎖。
(轉載自中國日報網;供稿人:宋美揚子)

 
 交流園地

 
    翻譯貴在不譯                       
    翻譯服務于溝通,目的在交流、傳意,更應爭取傳神。
    一、止戈為武,不戰而屈人之兵
    小標題看似風馬牛不相及,實則是想說我首先是受這句話啟發。
A lion’s teeth are bared, and his enemies simply shudder at his roar. 氣場能量場一出來,省去不少事。
    翻譯除了言辭表達,表情舉止、氣度風采也在傳達著信息。一個好的翻譯展現著大國的自信。外交是妥協,譯員很有氣勢,對方感覺到不好施壓,可能有些話就咽回去了,自然就不必翻譯了。因語言外的素質,達到“不譯”的效果。這里并非夸大譯員的作用,外事活動的影響因素很多,譯員只是一個方面。
    二、禮賓禮儀,有所不為有所為
    金正昆的書里說學禮儀用禮儀要有所不為有所為。知道什么不該說,什么不該做,不犯錯,不出丑,是禮儀的最低要求。做到這條,基本成功一半。
    同理,譯員應該清楚知道什么不能說,不必譯。這比口若懸河、滔滔不絕,更符合譯員的身份。
    三、大道至簡,大音稀聲
    蘋果設計理念,Simplicity is the ultimate sophistication.(出自《喬布斯傳》)
    蘋果的界面用戶友好,其產品不用說明書,用戶憑直覺思維intuitive thinking就知道怎么使用。其實讓一個電子產品做功,其總勞動量是一定的,設計師工程師思維強度大了,消耗卡路里多了,用戶才可以不費力。
    譯員的工作也是,譯員水平高,加工處理信息能力強,構思組織譯語付出勞動多了,脫口而出的譯語就會簡潔明了,brief and to the point, 而且更容易讓人理解和接受。比如周總理介紹《梁?!窌r的一句“Chinese Romeo and Juliet”,引發全場笑聲和贊嘆。
    四、千言萬語,不若莫言
    在此,我講一個親身經歷的故事。在鞏義市直幼兒園給外教當陪同翻譯時,我與之打交道的外教是個年輕的菲律賓女孩,性格活潑開朗。有一次,她上完課,碰巧生活老師送水果來。那是給整個班的一大盆葡萄。外教做個鬼臉,說I’ll take these away. 我知道她只是惡作劇,逗一下在場的小朋友。她雙手端起葡萄就往外走,我呢,half shocked and half amused,給個瞪大眼睛同時忍住笑的表情,沒有翻譯她這句話。其實也沒有譯的必要,大家都看到了她在干什么,配合并欣賞她的表演,娛樂小朋友就行。小家伙們一副驚呆了又很擔心的神態,她目的達到了,立即笑著把葡萄放回了原處。整個過程極短,只有一二十秒,如果我出聲,會破壞氣氛,而且等我說完,葡萄多半已經放回,喜劇效果會大打折扣。
    不同語言背景,不同思維方式。譯員會引導服務對象的思考走向,善于在兩種語言的思維模式中轉換,讓雙方漸漸想到一塊兒去,不僅僅是譯員能預測接下來講話內容而有利于譯語輸出,更重要的是能促成講話交談的目標達成。如果譯員不需要多說,雙方達成合意,當然是上策。法國作家圣艾修伯里的《小王子》里有句話:“語言是引起誤會的根源。”恰到好處,不多一句,是一個優秀譯員應該拿捏得當的尺度。(供稿人:鞏義市外僑辦 張舒)
 
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