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譯訊第34期

文章來源:翻譯室  發布時間:2015-11-17

時政要聞 
News Review
 
國際新聞:International
    1. 10月5日,85歲的藥學家屠呦呦和另外兩位科學家共同榮獲2015諾貝爾生理學或醫學獎,成為我國在該領域首位諾貝爾獎得主,該獎項肯定了他們在寄生蟲疾病藥物研究方面的工作。屠呦呦因發現了青蒿素而獲獎,該藥物能夠治療瘧疾,并已挽救了全球尤其是發展中國家的數百萬生命。
    Eighty-five-year old Chinese pharmacologist Tu Youyou became China's first medicine Nobel laureate on October 5. She was one of the three scientists awarded the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their work in developing effective drugs against parasitic diseases. Tu was honored for developing Artemisinin, a drug therapy for malaria that has saved millions of lives across the globe, especially in the developing world.
 
    2. 應英國女王伊麗莎白二世邀請,習近平主席于10月19日至23日對英國進行國事訪問,這是中國國家主席十年來首次對英國事訪問。雙方一致認為,習近平主席此訪是今年高層交往的高潮,為中英關系提供了歷史性機遇。中英將共同致力于構建面向21世紀全球全面戰略伙伴關系。此訪開啟了持久、開放、共贏的中英關系“黃金時代”。
    At the invitation of Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, President Xi Jinping paid a state visit to the United Kingdom from October 19 to 23. This is the first state visit paid by a Chinese President to the UK in 10 years. Both sides agree that the State Visit, as the culmination of the high-level exchanges this year, provides a historic opportunity for China-UK relations. China and the UK are committed to building a global comprehensive strategic partnership for the 21st century. This visit opens a golden era in China-UK relations featuring enduring, inclusive and win-win cooperation.
 
    3. 10月26日,阿富汗東北部發生7.8級地震,此次地震已造成360多人死亡,數千人受傷,印度首都新德里也有震感。由于震中興都庫什山區通訊中斷,死亡人數將會進一步上升。
    A major 7.8-magnitude earthquake struck the remote Afghan northeast on October 26, killing more than 360 people in Afghanistan and injuring thousands and sending shock waves as far as New Delhi. The death toll could climb in coming days because communications were down in much of the rugged Hindu Kush mountain range where the quake was centered.
 
國內新聞:China
    4. 10月12日,省長謝伏瞻在鄭州會見了奧地利蒂羅爾州州長君特·普拉特一行,并續簽兩省州加強交流與合作備忘錄。謝伏瞻說,河南省與蒂羅爾州自1999年9月結為友好省州以來,友好交往和經貿合作不斷加深,希望借此次續簽兩省州加強交流與合作備忘錄,繼續鞏固和發展兩省州業已存在的友好關系,充分發揮各自優勢,用好友好省州平臺,推動省州全方位合作取得實質性進展。君特·普拉特表示蒂羅爾州愿意加強與河南的合作,密切人員往來,不斷深化雙方合作,為兩省州友好關系的發展注入新活力。
    On October 12, Governor Xie Fuzhan met with Gunter Pratt, Governor of Tirol, Austria in Zhengzhou, and renewed the MOU signed between the two sides. Governor Xie said that since Henan and Tirol established sister-province/state relations in September 1999, friendly exchanges and economic and trade cooperation have been constantly deepened. He hoped that both sides could take the opportunity of renewing MOU to consolidate friendly relations, give full play to each other’s advantages, make good use of the exchange platforms, and strive for substantial progress of all-round cooperation. Governor Gunter Pratt said that Tirol is willing to strengthen cooperation with Henan, enhance people-to-people exchanges, and inject new vitality to the bilateral relations.
 
    5. 10月20日,省統計局發布的最新數據顯示,前三季度,非金屬礦物制品業、計算機通信和其他電子設備制造業、專用設備制造業、化學原料和化學制品制造業、農副食品加工業、通用設備制造業、食品制造業、金屬制品業、有色金屬冶煉和壓延加工業、汽車制造業等10個行業是支撐全省規模以上工業增長的主要力量。這10個行業增加值合計同比增長11.9%,對全省規模以上工業增長的貢獻率69.5%,拉動全省規模以上工業增長5.9個百分點。以“互聯網+”等為代表的新產業、新業態引領作用明顯,發展勢頭迅猛。
    Statistics released by Henan Provincial Bureau of Statistics on October 20th shows that in the first three quarters of this year, non-metallic mineral products industry, computer communications and other electronic equipment manufacturing, special equipment manufacturing, chemical raw materials and chemical products manufacturing, agricultural food processing, general equipment manufacturing, food manufacturing, metal products, non-ferrous metal smelting and rolling processing and automobile manufacturing are the main forces to bolster the province's industrial growth. The added value of the 10 industries enjoy a year-on-year growth of 11.9%, contributing 69.5% of Henan's above-scale industrial growth and driving the above-scale industry to increase by 5.9%. New industries and new business patterns represented by "Internet +" develop rapidly and play a leading role. 
 
    6. 10月26日,裝載3.032噸澳大利亞冰鮮牛肉的華航CI0054航班從澳大利亞飛抵鄭州新鄭國際機場。這是河南進口肉類指定口岸獲批后首次直接進口肉類產品,標志著我國首個不沿海、不沿江、不沿邊的內陸進口肉類指定口岸正式啟用。據悉,首批澳大利亞冰鮮牛肉進口量約150噸,將在近期陸續運抵新鄭國際機場。
    On October 26, China Airlines CI0054 loading 3.032 tons of fresh beef from Australia landed in Zhengzhou  Xinzheng International airport. This was the first meat product directly imported since the designated port of meat importing in Henan was approved, marking the launch of first designated port of meat importing in China’s hinterland. It is reported that the first batch of fresh beef weighs about 150 tons and will arrive Zhengzhou Xinzheng International airport in succession recently.
 
    7. 11月7日,習近平主席在新加坡會見臺灣領導人馬英九,就推進兩岸關系和平發展交換意見。這是中國內戰(1946-49)以來兩岸間第一次舉行該規格會議。習近平與馬英九在新加坡會中互相稱呼對方為“先生”,并在會議結束后共進晚餐。
    Chinese President Xi Jinping met Taiwan’s leader Ma Ying-jeou in Singapore on November 7 and exchanged views on promoting the peaceful development of cross-straits relations. It was the first meeting of its kind from the two sides since the Chinese civil war (1946-49). Xi Jinping and Ma Ying-jeou addressed each other as "Mr" and had dinner after the meeting.(供稿人:丁銳、高陽)
習近平主席訪英期間引用的經典名句
 
    1. 在中國,民本和法制思想自古有之,幾千年前就有“民惟邦本,本固邦寧”的說法。
  In China, the concept of putting people first and following the rule of law emerged in the ancient times.
  典出:《尚書·五子之歌》
  原文:皇祖有訓,民可近不可下,民惟邦本,本固邦寧。
  釋義:祖先早就傳下訓誡,人民是用來親近的,不能輕視與低看;人民才是國家的根基,根基牢固,國家才能安定。
 
    2.  凡是過去,皆為序章。
  What’s past is prologue.
  典出:莎士比亞戲劇《暴風雨》(The Tempest),第二幕第一場。
  釋義:“以往的一切都只是個開場的引子”或“以往的只算得是序幕”。
 
    3. 志合者,不以山海為遠。
  Nothing, not even mountains and oceans, can separate people with shared goals and vision.
  典出:晉·葛洪《抱樸子·博喻》
  原文:志合者,不以山海為遠;道乖者,不以咫尺為近。故有跋涉而游集,亦或密邇而不接。
  釋義:心志投合的雙方,相隔山海之阻也不覺得遙遠; 道不相同的兩方,相處咫尺之近也不感覺親密。所以,有些人、有些國家,跋山涉水而來,卻交往密切; 相反,有些人、有些國家,一衣帶水而居,卻形同陌路 。
 
    4.  來而不可失者,時也;蹈而不可失者,機也。
  Opportunity may knock just once; grab it before it slips away.
  典出:蘇軾《代侯公說項羽辭》
  釋義:到來了就不該錯過的,是時運;遇見了就不該流失的,是機遇。
 
    5.  履不必同,期于適足;治不必同,期于利民。
  People don’t need to wear the same shoes; they should find what suit their feet. Governments don’t have to adopt the same model of governance; they should find what benefits their people.
  典出:魏源《默觚下·治篇五》
  原文:江河百源,一趨于海,反江河之水而復歸之山,得乎?履不必同,期于適足;治不必同,期于利民。
  釋義:鞋子不必相同,期待的是它能適合腳。治理的方法不必相同,期待的是它能有利于人民。比喻重要的是要找到一條適合自己的路。
 
    6. “生存還是毀滅,這是一個問題。”哈姆雷特的這句話,給我留下了極為深刻的印象。
  “To be or not to be, that is the question.” This line from Hamlet has left a lasting impression on me.
  典出:莎士比亞《哈姆雷特》
  釋義:面對父親的猝然離世及母親的改嫁,及叔父的篡位,哈姆雷特內心充滿猜疑、矛盾、猶豫、痛苦,他覺得活著沒有意義,但又不知死后會不會下地獄,面臨著兩難抉擇。
 
    7.  凡益之道,與時偕行。
  All good principles should adapt to changing times to remain relevant.
  典出:《周易·益卦·彖傳》
  原文:天施地生,其益無方。凡益之道,與時偕行。
釋義:天施氣于地,地受氣而化生,正所謂“損上益下”。其施化之益,沒有方向、處所的限制,可以說無所不至。因此,益之道就是:變通趨時,把握時機,做出正確的判斷和選擇。
(陳瑋 摘編自中國日報、人民網)

 
一帶一路英文譯法規范
 
    近日,國家發展改革委會同外交部、商務部等部門對“一帶一路”英文譯法進行了規范。 
    一、在對外公文中,統一將“絲綢之路經濟帶和21世紀海上絲綢之路”的英文全稱譯為“the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road”,“一帶一路”簡稱譯為“the Belt and Road”,英文縮寫用“B&R”。 
    二“倡議”一詞譯為“initiative”,且使用單數。不使用“strategy”、“project”、“program”、“agenda”等措辭。
    三、考慮到“一帶一路”倡議一詞出現頻率較高,在非正式場合,除首次出現時使用英文全稱譯文外,其簡稱譯法可視情況靈活處理,除可使用“the Belt and Road Initiative”外,也可視情使用“the land and maritime Silk Road initiative”。其他譯法不建議使用。

 
機場實用英語口語(入境篇)
 
  入境他國檢驗護照時移民官的詢問常常會給旅行者帶來一些困擾,本篇將列出一些放諸各國都基本適用的入境對話,詳細研讀后,下次再面對移民官時,你就可以從容不迫地回答問題了。
    May I see your passport, please?
    麻煩請給我你的護照。
    Here is my passport / Here it is.
    這是我的護照。
    Where are you staying?
    將在哪兒住宿?
    I will stay at Boston Hotel.
    我將住在波士頓飯店。
    What's the purpose of your visit?
    旅行的目的為何?
    Sightseeing/Business.
    觀光/公務。
    Do you have a return ticket to Taiwan?
    是否有臺灣回程機票?
    Yes, here it is.
    有的,這就是回程機票。
    How long will you be staying in the United States?
    預計在美國停留多久?
    I plan to stay for about 10 days.
    預計停留約10天。
    How much money do you have with you?
    你隨身攜帶多少現金?
    I have 800 dollars.
    大約800美元。
    Good. Have a nice day.
    祝你玩得愉快。
    Thank you. I'm just passing through. I am leaving for Geneva tonight.
    謝謝。我只是過境而已。今晚即動身前往日內瓦。(供稿人:丁銳)

 
Year of China in South Africa
Henan Week
南非中國年河南周

 
    The capital city of Bokone Bophirima Province, Mahikeng, from Wednesday 28 to Friday 30 October was a hive of activities as Premier SOR Mahumapelo hosted a delegation from Henan Province in China led by Vice-Governor Li Ya, for what is dubbed “China Week in Bokone Bophirima Province”.
    10月28日至30日, “南非中國年—河南周”活動于南非西北省首府瑪菲肯舉辦。西北省省長馬赫馬佩羅與河南省副省長李亞共同出席了主要活動。
    The Chinese’s visit to the Province follows the declaration of 2015 as the Year of China in South Africa by both Presidents Zuma of South Africa and Xi of China, with a view to strengthen economic, social and political relations between the two countries. 2014 was the Year of South Africa in China.
    此舉是為落實南非祖瑪總統與中國習近平主席關于舉辦“2015南非中國年”的重要共識,旨在加強雙方經貿、社會及政治聯系。2014年為“中國南非年”。
    Premier Mahumapelo and Vice-Governor Li Ya, after a meeting held on 30 October, have agreed to explore possibilities for future cooperation in the field of agriculture, culture, tourism and mining. The cooperation between the two Provinces will also focus on development programmes such as the Mahikeng Rebranding, Repositioning and Renewal Projects, establishment of cooperatives in rural areas, education and cultural heritage exchange programmes as well as comprehensive transport systems.
    馬赫馬佩羅省長和李亞副省長于10月30號的會談中達成一致,未來將在農業、文化、旅游及礦業方面探索合作機會。兩省合作也會關注瑪菲肯的重塑形象、重新定位與復興計劃,以及在農村建立合作社、教育與文化遺產交流與綜合交通體系項目。
    Key to the China Week in Bokone Bophirima’s three-day programme was the hosting of a business seminar that see business people from around the Province interacting with business associations from China on investment opportunities in the sectors of Agriculture, Culture, Tourism, Mining, Infrastructure and Construction.
    經貿論壇是為期三天的“河南周”活動的重頭戲。來自農業、文化、旅游、礦業、基礎設施建設等領域的西北省和中國相關企業探索了合作與投資的可能。
    Moreover, cultural groups from China showcased their dance and Kung Fu performances to the delegates and communities at the Mmabatho Convention Centre.
    另外,河南省的文化演出團體也在主會場姆瑪巴托會議中心進行了歌舞及功夫表演。
(宋美揚子 編譯自全非新聞綜合網站和南非政府官方網站)
 

 
Family Planning
計劃生育政策

China allows all couples to have two children
中國允許所有夫婦生育二胎

 
    China has abandoned its more than 35-year-old “one-child policy”. Now couples can have two.
    中國廢除了擁有35余年歷史的“獨生子女政策?,F在,夫婦可以生育二胎。
    Chinese demographers had been worrying aloud for years about China’s rapidly ageing population and plunging birth rate and the impact these trends would have on the country’s economy. On October 29th the Communist Party finally ended the “one-child policy” that has been widely—often excessively—blamed for exacerbating these problems. Now couples will be allowed to have two.
    中國快速的人口老齡化、急劇跳水的出生率以及由此可能引發的對本國經濟的沖擊,已讓中國的人口學家們長期“夜不能寐”。曾幾何時,獨生子女政策由于加劇了前述問題的嚴重性而廣受詬病,而就在10月29日,中國政府最終讓這一政策“壽終正寢”—夫妻可以生育二胎。
    It had already made several adjustments to the policy since it was introduced in 1979. These have long allowed those living in the countryside to have two children under certain conditions—if the first child is a girl, for example. In urban areas, the party allowed couples to have two children if both parents were themselves only children. It relaxed this in 2013, allowing couples to have two if only one parent meets that requirement. Ethnic minorities (less than 10% of the population) are often allowed two or more.
    生育政策自1979年頒布以來幾經修訂。中國農村一直允許生育二胎,但需要滿足一定條件,如第一胎為女孩等。在城市,政府允許夫妻生育二胎,但前提是夫妻雙方均為獨生子女。2013年,生育政策進一步放寬,只要夫妻雙方有一方是獨生子女,就能生育二胎。允許少數民族(占中國總人口不到10%)生育二胎或多胎。
    Now the party has relaxed somewhat more. The reason not to celebrate is that it is far from clear that the change will have much of an impact on the birth rate. After the previous relaxation was introduced in 2013, the government expected that 2m couples would try for a second child under the new rules within the first year. By the end of 2014 fewer than 1.1m had applied. The party has set no timetable for removing restrictions   altogether.
    如今,政府在生育問題上已經作出了進一步的放寬。但現在還不能高興太早,因為改變生育政策是否會切實提高生育率還不明確。2013年生育政策進一步放寬后,政府預計在新政策頒布一年內會有大約200萬對夫妻生育二胎。但是截至2014年底,只有不到110萬對夫妻申請二胎。在全面放開生育的問題上,政府方面并沒有明確時限。(編譯自《經濟學人》)

 
淺議商品品牌翻譯
 
 
     在“一帶一路”戰略和“互聯網+”發展新形態的時代背景下,我國跨境貿易電子商務迅猛發展,逐漸成外貿增長的新引擎。越來越多國外商品通過跨境電商進入中國市場,滿足國內消費者不斷增長的全球化購物新需求。隨著國外商品大量涌入國內市場,商品品牌和名稱的翻譯工作任務量急劇增大,但這方面的工作做得遠遠不夠。本文從日常工作所接觸到的翻譯實踐中,談一下商品品牌翻譯過程中的心得體會。
    尤金·奈達的功能對等翻譯理論認為:翻譯的恰如其分需要依賴很多方面,其中包括目的語讀者是誰,譯本作何之用,翻譯的目的是什么,是告之,取悅,還是推銷產品。商品翻譯的根本目的在于營銷,成功的商品翻譯是向消費者推銷商品、激發消費者購買欲望的重要保證。下面是在具體翻譯實踐中用到的一些翻譯策略和方法:
    一、音譯,這是商品翻譯中比較常見的方法之一,用漢語中與源語商品名讀音相近的字或相同的詞進行替代。例如德國著名奶粉品牌 Aptamil ,中文譯名為“愛他美”,一看便知是由英文名稱音譯而來,譯名在保持與源語發音基本相似的情況下,有意選擇了與產品特性有關的漢字“愛”和“美”,表達喜愛寶寶和希望健康美麗的含義,能夠激發中國消費者尤其是年輕父母們的購買欲望。類似的例子還有德國奶粉品牌Hipp“喜寶”,護發染發品牌Schwarzkopf“施華蔻”,護膚品牌Nivea“妮維雅”,意大利果醬蜂蜜品牌Rigoni“瑞歌”等。
    二、直譯,指直接按照字面上的意思翻譯。這種方法適用于翻譯商品名在源語和譯語文化中具有相同或相似的聯想意義。例如意大利著名精油沐浴乳Tesori d' Oriente,按照字面意思直譯為“東方寶石”,無論是源語還是譯名都帶有一種異域風情和獨特的奢華氣質,能給人尤其是女性消費者留下深刻印象。再如意大利清洗品牌Chante Clair“大公雞管家”,美國內衣品牌Victoria’s Secret直譯為“維多利亞的秘密”等。
    三、意譯,指的是不直接采用其字面意思,根據商品的特性和功能,把商品名所要表達的內涵和意境給翻譯出來。例如德國營養品牌Floradix,中文譯名為“鐵元”,就是根據其主要功效來翻譯的,能夠讓人了解到該產品具有補鐵功效,同時“元”也有元氣、根本之意,非常符合中國文化背景。這里再舉幾個例子如美國女性保健用品品牌Whisper譯成“護舒寶”,嬰兒衛生品牌 Pampers譯為“幫寶適”,和英國化妝品品牌The Body Sop“美體小鋪”等。
    四、移譯,也稱“零翻譯”,是指將源語中的詞匯直接“移植”到目的語當中。這是因為有些商品品牌由幾個字母、數字或符號組成,簡單好記但不好譯,所以采用移譯的方法不進行翻譯,如日本化妝品品牌SK-II、美國雪地靴品牌UGG、意大利果汁品牌1due3等。
以上幾種翻譯方法是對商品品牌翻譯方法所做的一些總結,但這還遠遠不夠。因為商品品牌翻譯不僅是一個語言轉換的過程,也是一種文化轉換的過程,翻譯商品品牌不但要掌握一定的翻譯技巧和方法,還要熟悉不同語言背后所承載的文化,同時考慮譯語消費者的風俗習慣、審美心理等因素,因此在這些方面多下功夫才能把商品品牌的翻譯工作做好。(供稿人:河南省保稅物流中心吳冰)  
                                               
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